W artykule z26 października 2021 r. w saudyjskiej gazecie “Al-Sharq Al-Awsat”, znany saudyjski dziennikarz Mamdouh Al-Muhaini, dyrektor naczelny kanałów telewizyjnych Al-Arabiya i Al-Hadath, wezwał do wszechstronnej reformy w świecie muzułmańskim, by wpoić racjonalne i naukowe myślenie, które będzie promowało tolerancję i wypleni ekstremizm. Al-Muhaini napisał, że wyzwanie Marcina Lutra wobec kościoła rzymsko-katolickiego w XVI wieku wydobyło Europę z religijnego fanatyzmu i utorowało drogę do Renesansu. Podobna reforma w islamie, powiedział, nie wymaga czekania na “muzułmańskiego Lutra”, ponieważ świat muzułmański miał i nadal ma setki myślicieli, którzy przedstawiają umiarkowane i racjonalne postrzeganie islamu. Potrzebni są raczej oświeceni i zainspirowani przywódcy, którzy zachęcą i będą sponsorować tych myślicieli, jak to robili przed wiekami Fryderyk Wielki w Prusach i Katarzyna Wielka w Rosji.    

Należy zauważyć, że saudyjskie gazety opublikowały ostatnio szereg artykułów w tym duchu, wzywających do religijnych reform i chwalących decyzję o nauczaniu filozofii i krytycznego myślenia w saudyjskich szkołach. Wydaje się, że ten dyskurs jest kierowany z góry i przypomina daleko idące oświadczenia saudyjskiego następcy tronu, księcia Muhammada bin Salmana w wywiadzie z kwietnia 2021 r., w którym podkreślał znaczenie używania niezależnego rozumowania (ijtihad) w interpretowaniu szariatu i przystosowywaniu go do ducha miejsca i czasu, jak również potrzebę walki z ekstremizmem. W lutym 2021 r. Bin Salman ogłosił także zamiar zaprowadzenia reform ustawodawczych opartych na obecnych międzynarodowych praktykach prawnych. Te wypowiedzi mogą być częścią jego prób wzmocnienia związków królestwa z Zachodem i odrzucenia wizerunku kraju jako sztywno konserwatywnego.[1]   


Mamdouh Al-Muhaini (Źródło: Al-Bayan, ZEA)
Mamdouh Al-Muhaini (Źródło: Al-Bayan, ZEA)

Dalszy tekst – fragmenty angielskiego tłumaczenia artykułu Al-Muhainiego, zamieszczonego na stronie internetowej Al-Arabiya – nie jest spolszczony.[2]

„We often wonder how Europe and America reached such a level of rationality and religious tolerance, with dozens of religions, sects, and beliefs coexisting in peace. Open debates on religions and their history in prestigious Paris, London, and New York universities; in their libraries, shelves upon shelves of philosophy, psychology, and anthropology books and magazines discussing the evolution of humankind and the human brain over the course of thousands of years.

„Among the factors that led to the West’s prosperity and advancement is a German monk by the name of Martin Luther. Despite the passage of five centuries since, Luther’s ideas that changed the face of Europe and the world forever are still relevant to many. The importance of Luther’s story lies in the lessons from which we can benefit in today’s world, which has become burdened by a culture of hatred and racism.

„This man, who chose to become a monk after being hit by thunder, took three groundbreaking steps. The first was rejecting the idea that salvation can only be achieved through the torture of the self for sins committed, which requires man to practice long and difficult tasks and rituals. Luther himself had suffered from mental anguish due to his obsession with cleansing his dirty soul from indelible sins, which pushed him to make confessions that lasted up to six consecutive hours for fear of the dark destiny that awaits him.

„Then, upon a thorough study of the Bible, Luther discovered that this exhausting idea is erroneous. He substituted it with a simple yet more important idea: that salvation is a gift of God’s grace to his believers, for God blesses and has mercy on the souls of humans, who do not need to burden themselves with cleansing their souls of imagined guilts. This idea liberated people from the weight of the incessant feeling of guilt, changed the prevailing miserable outlook on life, and linked man to God directly without the need for mediators.

„The dark horizon of life suddenly turned bright. People started thinking of life and how to enjoy it instead of constantly thinking of death and hell…

„The second key step Luther took was translating the Bible from Latin, which was only read and understood by clergymen, to the German language. This revolutionary step at the time allowed common people to read their sacred book for the first time, without the need for a mediator or interpreter. Ever since, the hegemony of priests began to shake and recede gradually until it faded completely.

„Luther’s third feat was publicly and explicitly challenging the Papal authority when he hung his Ninety-five Theses, a list of objections to the Roman Church’s corruption, onto the gate of the church of Wittenberg. During a visit to Rome years before, Luther had been pained by the sight of the glamour and grandiosity in the Church and its institutions, while the poor, ill, and needy lay helpless at their doors… [Luther’s] ideas spread quickly and amassed many followers and supporters…

„One of Luther’s key objections was the indulgences that the corrupt Papal Church had begun selling for monetary profit… Luther rejected this idea, arguing that salvation can only be granted by God and for free, not by humans; an argument that shaped the concept of religious reform. The relationship with God is an individual one and needs no mediators. Humans can read and interpret religious texts themselves, without the need for radical, corrupt priests. Only God can grant His mercy and grace, without the need for torture or levies…

„Religious reform was the beginning of the European Renaissance and the eradication of religious intolerance. It was followed by major intellectual eras, such as the Age of Enlightenment, the Lumiere Movement, and Modernity. Many figures and reasons led to these European and American renaissances that fascinate us today, and Luther was surely one of them.

„In our world today, one could pose questions such as 'Where is Islam’s Luther?’ and 'When will Islam’s Luther come?’. However, these would be erroneous questions. Islam’s history and present abound with scholars, intellectuals, and philosophers — Muslim and non-Muslim — who provided reasonable and spiritual interpretations of Islam that preserve its pure core and connect it to today’s world, all while ridding it of the fundamentalism that blinds it. There are dozens, or perhaps thousands, of Luthers of Islam.

„In the age of the Caliph Al-Ma’mun,[3] translation flourished, the rhetoric of rationality prevailed, and philosophy prospered. Debates were held between those who hold different ideologies or religious beliefs without fear or worry. Due to this intellectual freedom and cultural openness to the world, translation, science, and culture thrived, and great philosophers emerged whose teachings are still valued today, such as Al-Tawhidi, Miskawayh, Al-Ma’arri, the Brethren of Purity, and others.[4] However, as we know, this enlightenment faded and the Golden Age dissipated, giving way to an era of intellectual stagnation. Meanwhile, Europe was in the final days of its medieval ages and on the cusp of scientific, industrial, intellectual, and technological revolutions that crowned it as a master of the world to this day.

„As such, the question of 'where is the Luther of Islam’ is wrong. It should instead be: Where is Islam’s Frederick the Great? The King of Prussia, who earned the title of Enlightened Despot, embraced major philosophers in Europe like Kant and Voltaire, and gave them the freedom to think and carry out scientific research, which helped their ideas spread and prevail over fundamentalism after bitter clashes. We could also ask where is Islam’s Catherine the Great, who also embraced and helped spread intellectualism and philosophical culture and rationality. Without the support and protection of these leaders, we would have likely never heard of these intellectuals, nor of Luther before them.

„An intellectual and scientific renaissance cannot flourish in the void. There are, indeed, many factors that help it spread and enshrine rational and scientific thinking and values of tolerance and modernity in the minds of people, to destroy fundamentalism once and for all. Perhaps enlightened leaders and politicians who believe in the future are one of the key requirements for such a renaissance to prosper.”

[1] See MEMRI Inquiry and Analysis No. 1575, Saudi Crown Prince Mohammed Bin Salman’s Far-Reaching Statements On Religion Herald Further Reforms In The Kingdom, May 4, 2021

[2]  English.alarabiya.net, October 26, 2021.

[3] Al-Ma’mun, the seventh Abbasid caliph (r. 813-833), promoted the development of science and philosophy.

[4] The Brethren of Purity was a secret society of Muslim philosophers in Basra, Iraq, in the 10th century CE, which had considerable impact on Islamic philosophy and the Muslim world. Among other innovations the group incorporated Neoplatonists principles into Islamic jurisprudence.